organism under miscroscope

Bacteria That Lack Cell Walls

Introduction: In the diverse world of Bacteria That Lack Cell Walls, there are remarkable variations that set some groups apart. Among these are bacteria that lack a cell wall, a characteristic quite unusual given the vital role the cell wall plays in the survival and pathogenicity of most bacteria. This subset of bacteria, including the…

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General Pathology SEQs & MCQs

Introduction This guide presents a broad array of educational content focused on several critical fields within the biological sciences, including pathology, immunology, microbiology, and parasitology. The materials are designed as succinct study aids and review resources for students and professionals in these disciplines. The following descriptions provide an overview of the content you can expect…

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structure of a coronavirus

Virology Paper : Past

Introduction: Virology Paper Welcome to our wide-ranging collection on Virology Paper. This assembly of resources, from comprehensive lectures to Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) and Short Essay Questions (SEQs), covers various vital aspects of the field. Delve into specific viruses, including the novel Coronavirus, Dengue and Yellow Fever, Hepatitis viruses, HIV, Influenza viruses, and more. Understand…

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microscopic shot of a virus

Spirochetes SGDs

Introduction Spirochetes SGDs comprise a phylum of distinctive bacteria characterized by their long. Spiral shape and unique mode of motility. They are often found in aquatic environments. But several species are notable pathogens in humans, causing diseases such as syphilis and Lyme disease. Treponema The Treponema genus, part of the Spirochetes phylum, includes several species…

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person holding petri dish

Mycobacteria SGDs

Introduction : Mycobacteria SGDs Mycobacteria SGDs are a group of Gram-positive bacteria characterized by their unique, waxy cell walls, which contain high concentrations of mycolic acid. This characteristic makes them resistant to common staining techniques and many disinfectants. They are known for their slow growth rate and their role in significant diseases such as tuberculosis…

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A medical illustration of Clostridioides difficile bacteria, formerly known as Clostridium difficile. Original image sourced from US Government department: Public Health Image Library, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Under US law this image is copyright free, please credit the government department whenever you can”.

Gram positive Rods Paper : Past

Introduction : Gram positive Rods Paper Based on their shape and their reaction to the Gram stain test, Gram positive Rods Paper are a classification of bacteria. These bacteria retain a violet color after staining, which is a characteristic trait of Gram-positive bacteria, and they are cylindrical or rod-shaped. The classification includes various genera like…

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A medical illustration of drug–resistant, Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. Original image sourced from US Government department: Public Health Image Library, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Under US law this image is copyright free, please credit the government department whenever you can”.

Gram Positive Cocci Paper : Past

Introduction Gram-Positive Cocci are a class of bacteria that acquire a violet color when subjected to the Gram stain technique Paper. This group includes a variety of bacterial species that can have serious health implications in humans. These bacteria are known for their spherical shape and are typically observed in pairs or chains under a…

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Microencapsulation for Anti-Tumor Drugs (NASA, International Space Station)

Obligate Intracellular Bacteria SGDs

Introduction Obligate intracellular bacteria SGDs are fascinating microorganisms that have evolved to grow and reproduce solely inside the cells of a host. These unique bacteria, which include prominent genera such as Chlamydia and Rickettsia, have a dependency on the host for their survival and reproduction. The fact that they cannot be cultured outside of host…

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