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Case Study: Secondary Amenorrhoea in a Young Female Post Marriage

Case Presentation

The patient is a 20-year-old female who is newly married and has been experiencing secondary amenorrhoea since her marriage three months ago. Her last menstrual period was on 04-11-2019. She recently took a pregnancy test, which came back positive.

The patient has been complaining of a range of symptoms including palpitations, nervousness, heat intolerance, fatigue, a cold sensation, hoarseness, constipation, joint pain, and gallbladder attack (GBA). She also has a strong family history of autoimmune diseases, which may be relevant in the context of her presentation.

Upon examination, she appeared anxious and was excessively sweaty. Her pulse rate was high, recorded at 110 beats per minute. The examination also revealed the presence of a small, smooth goiter with a soft bruit. There were noticeable tremors in her outstretched fingers, and lid lag was also present.


Secondary amenorrhoea refers to the absence of menstrual periods for three or more consecutive months in women who previously had regular cycles.

Autoimmune diseases are conditions in which the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells, considering them as foreign. This attack can occur in any part of the body.

Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that leads to overactivity of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism).

Hyperthyroidism is diagnosed through a combination of symptoms, physical examination, and blood tests that measure the levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).

The treatment for Graves’ disease may include medication to reduce the production of thyroid hormone, radioactive iodine to destroy the overactive thyroid cells, and surgery to remove the thyroid.

Yes, pregnancy is the most common cause of secondary amenorrhoea in women of reproductive age.

A goiter refers to the enlargement of the thyroid gland, which can be caused by a variety of conditions, including Graves’ disease.

Yes, Graves’ disease, by causing hyperthyroidism, can disrupt the normal menstrual cycle and cause secondary amenorrhoea.

A family history of autoimmune diseases can increase an individual’s risk of developing such conditions. These diseases often run in families.

Early diagnosis is crucial in any medical condition as it allows for the swift initiation of appropriate treatment, helping to control the underlying disease, alleviate symptoms, and prevent complications.

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