General Pathology SGDs (Small Group Discussion)

Hospital sign for a Department of Chemical Pathology, Liverpool, England, 1970-1974 (sign)



This comprehensive guide provides an in-depth exploration of various academic topics ranging from the basics of immunology and hemodynamics, to the complexities of cell injury, inflammation, and genetic mutations. The list encompasses lectures, small group discussions (SGDs), quizzes, and revisions that offer a rich source of knowledge for any student in the field of biomedical sciences.

3rd Year Lecture: Morphological Alterations and Mechanisms of Cell Injury

This topic covers the third year lecture focusing on the morphological changes and mechanisms involved in cell injury. It provides an in-depth understanding of how physical, chemical, and biological agents can lead to cellular alterations, including the adaptive and maladaptive responses.

3rd yr lec,Morph alteration _ mech. of cell injury.pptx

Acute Infection SGD

This small group discussion (SGD) revolves around the acute phase of infection. The discussion is designed to provide students with a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of acute infections.

Apoptosis Necrosis SGD

This SGD focuses on apoptosis and necrosis, two distinct types of cell death. It explores their unique features, triggers, molecular pathways, and their implications in various pathological conditions.

Cell Injury and Necrosis Updated

An updated study on cell injury and necrosis. This subject material encompasses the causes, molecular and cellular mechanisms, and consequences of cell injury and necrosis. It also discusses the recent findings and advancements in this area.

Cell Injury and Necrosis updated.pptx

Cell Injury, Healing and Repair SGD

This SGD is centred around the processes of cell injury and the subsequent healing and repair. The discussion explores how cells respond to injury and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in tissue healing and regeneration.

Cell Mediated Immunity

A comprehensive study on cell-mediated immunity, a crucial component of the adaptive immune response. It involves the functions of T cells, natural killer cells, and other immune cells in defending the body against intracellular pathogens and cancer.

Chromosomal Aberrations

An insightful look into chromosomal aberrations, including their types, causes, and implications. It explores genetic mutations, structural changes, and numerical aberrations in chromosomes, and their effects on genetic expression.

Chronic Inflammation

This subject delves into chronic inflammation, its causes, pathophysiology, and effects on the body. It investigates how persistent inflammation can contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer and autoimmune disorders.

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Chronic Inflammation.pptx

Clinical Aspects of Neoplasia

An in-depth exploration of the clinical aspects of neoplasia, focusing on the pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnostic procedures, and treatment options associated with benign and malignant neoplasms.

Complement System

A comprehensive overview of the complement system, a vital part of the innate immune response. This topic includes the activation pathways, biological functions, and the role of complement proteins in immunity and disease.


An in-depth examination of cytokines, small proteins crucial for cell signalling in the immune system. The study explores their types, roles in immune responses, and their involvement in health and disease.

Evasion of Host Defense

A detailed investigation into how pathogens evade the host’s defense mechanisms. It includes the strategies used by various pathogens to avoid detection, inhibit immune responses, and survive within the host.

Frameshift Mutations

A comprehensive analysis of frameshift mutations, a type of genetic mutation that changes the reading frame of the genetic code. It explores their causes, effects on protein synthesis, and their role in various genetic disorders.

Genetics Lecture 1

The first lecture in a series on genetics. This initial session introduces the basic concepts, terminologies, and principles of genetics, laying the groundwork for more advanced topics.

Genetics Lecture 2 & 3

The second and third lecture in a series on genetics. This initial session introduces the basic concepts, terminologies, and principles of genetics, laying the groundwork for more advanced topics.

Genetics Lecture 4

The fourth lecture in the genetics series. This lesson delves deeper into more complex genetic concepts and phenomena, building upon the foundational knowledge provided in the previous lectures.

Genetics Quiz

A quiz designed to test the understanding of genetics. The quiz covers various aspects of genetics, from basic concepts to more complex phenomena, providing a comprehensive review of the subject.

Growth Promoting Metabolic Alterations

An in-depth study on growth-promoting metabolic alterations. This topic investigates how changes in cellular metabolism can promote growth and proliferation, with a focus on the metabolic reprogramming seen in cancer cells.

Hemodynamics Lecture 1 and 2: Terminologies

The initial lectures in the hemodynamics series focus on terminologies. These provide a foundational understanding of the critical terms and concepts used in the study of blood flow and pressure in the circulatory system.

Hemodynamics lect 1_ 2 Terminologies Hemorrhage Hemostatsis Congestion.pptx

Hemodynamics Lecture 3 and 4

Lecture 3 and 4 in the hemodynamics series build on the foundational knowledge from the initial lectures, delving deeper into the mechanisms that govern blood flow, the factors that influence it, and the regulation of blood pressure.

Hemodynamics lecture 3 _ 4.pptx

Hemodynamics SGD 1

This SGD in hemodynamics encourages students to delve deeper into the subject matter. It focuses on the understanding and application of key hemodynamics concepts through discussion and problem-solving.

Hemodynamics SGD 2

The second small group discussion (SGD) in hemodynamics. This collaborative learning session encourages students to share insights, resolve queries, and deepen their understanding of hemodynamics concepts and principles.

Hemodynamics SGD

This SGD in hemodynamics encourages students to delve deeper into the subject matter. It focuses on the understanding and application of key hemodynamics concepts through discussion and problem-solving.

Hemostasis Lecture 3

The third lecture in the hemostasis series. This lecture provides a comprehensive understanding of hemostasis, the process that prevents and stops bleeding. It covers the mechanisms of clot formation, factors involved, and disorders related to hemostasis.

Humoral Immunity

A thorough examination of humoral immunity, a critical aspect of the adaptive immune response. It explores the role of B cells and the antibodies they produce in defending the body against extracellular pathogens.

Hypersensitivity (2)

A detailed study on hypersensitivity reactions, focusing on the second type of hypersensitivity. It includes the underlying mechanisms, clinical manifestations, diagnostic approaches, and management of Type II hypersensitivity reactions.

Hypersensitivity SGD

This small group discussion (SGD) focuses on hypersensitivity reactions. It offers a platform for students to discuss and gain a comprehensive understanding of the types, mechanisms, clinical presentations, and management of hypersensitivity reactions.

Immunological Techniques

A comprehensive review of various techniques used in immunology. This subject explores methods used for detecting and measuring immune responses, such as ELISA, flow cytometry, Western blotting, and more.

Immunology 1

The first lecture in a series on immunology. This session introduces students to the basic principles and components of the immune system, setting the stage for more advanced topics.

Immunology Revision

A comprehensive review of the subject of immunology. This revision session covers key concepts, theories, and components of the immune system, and serves as an effective tool for consolidating knowledge in immunology.

Important Questions and Answers

A document compiling important questions and their answers, offering students a chance to review and test their understanding of critical concepts, principles, and applications in the field of study.

Inflammation 2

The second part of a series on inflammation. This topic explores the different stages, cellular and molecular mechanisms, and outcomes of the inflammatory response, with a specific focus on acute inflammation.

Inflammation 3

The third part of a series on inflammation. This topic expands on the previous lectures, focusing on chronic inflammation, its causes, mechanisms, and implications in health and disease.

Insensitivity to Growth Factors

A comprehensive study on the insensitivity to growth factors. This topic delves into the cellular mechanisms underlying growth factor insensitivity, and its implications in various pathological conditions like cancer.

Intracellular Accumulation and Aging

A deep dive into the phenomena of intracellular accumulation and aging. This topic investigates how the buildup of substances within cells can contribute to the process of aging and the development of age-related diseases.

Introduction to Immunology

A foundational lecture introducing the field of immunology. It outlines the basic principles, components, and functions of the immune system, paving the way for more in-depth exploration of specific immunological topics.

MCQs Inflammation

A set of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) designed to test and reinforce students’ understanding of inflammation, including its causes, types, mechanisms, and clinical implications.

Molecular Basis for Multistep Carcinogenesis

An in-depth exploration of the molecular basis for multistep carcinogenesis. This subject investigates the series of genetic and epigenetic changes that drive the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells.

Neoplasia 1

The first lecture in a series on neoplasia. It introduces students to the basic concepts of neoplasia, including the classification of neoplasms, their characteristics, growth patterns, and biological behavior.

Neoplasia SGD with Key

A small group discussion (SGD) focusing on neoplasia, accompanied by a key. It promotes a deeper understanding of neoplasia, offering students a platform to discuss various aspects, from basic concepts to clinical implications.

Problem Based Learning 1

The first session in a series on problem-based learning. This educational approach encourages students to learn through the experience of solving problems, promoting critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and active learning.


A quiz designed to assess the students’ grasp of various topics. It serves as a tool to evaluate learning outcomes and to help students reinforce their understanding and recall of subject material.

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Revision 1

The first session in a series of revision sessions. This review session is designed to reinforce learning and enhance understanding of various concepts and principles covered in the course material.

Revision 2

The second session in a series of revision sessions. This review session is designed to reinforce learning and enhance understanding of various concepts and principles covered in the course material.


A small group discussion (SGD) that provides an interactive learning environment. It encourages students to share ideas, solve problems, and discuss various topics to deepen their understanding and facilitate active learning.

SGD 1 Inflammation 3rd Week of January

A SGD held in the third week of January, focusing on inflammation. It provides a platform for students to explore the topic of inflammation in depth, discussing its mechanisms, types, and implications in health and disease.

SGD Chronic Inflammation (1)

The first SGD focusing on chronic inflammation. It offers a deep dive into the persistent inflammatory response, discussing its causes, mechanisms, pathological implications, and potential treatments.

SGD Granuloma

A SGD on granulomas, collections of immune cells often seen in chronic inflammatory diseases. The discussion focuses on their formation, types, causes, and the diseases associated with them.

SGD Healing and Repair

A SGD that focuses on the processes of healing and repair following tissue injury. It explores the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tissue regeneration and repair.

SGD Immunology

A small group discussion (SGD) centered on immunology. It provides a platform for students to share insights and discuss various aspects of the immune system, its functions, and roles in health and disease.

SGD Inflammation

A SGD on inflammation. This discussion session explores the various facets of inflammation, from its causes and types to the cellular mechanisms involved, and its role in disease pathogenesis.

SGD Mutation 1 Questions

A SGD focused on genetic mutations. It includes a set of questions that guide the discussion around the types, causes, mechanisms, and implications of genetic mutations.

SGD Neoplasia 2

The second SGD on neoplasia. This discussion delves deeper into the topic, focusing on the molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation, tumor progression, and the clinical implications of neoplasms.

SGD-01 & 02-Cell Injury

The second SGD focusing on cell injury. It offers an in-depth exploration of the various types, causes, and mechanisms of cell injury, and its role in disease pathogenesis.


A comprehensive study on vaccination, a crucial public health tool. This topic covers the principles of vaccination, types of vaccines, their development, administration, and the immune responses they elicit.

Detailed Study on Embolism and Shock

This resource offers an in-depth look at embolism and shock. It explains the pathophysiology behind these conditions, their potential causes, clinical manifestations, and the long-term effects they can have on patient health.

Granulomatous Inflammation Analysis

This resource provides a comprehensive analysis of granulomatous inflammation, a specific form of chronic inflammation. It covers its causes, pathological characteristics, clinical manifestations, and the potential outcomes of this type of inflammation.

Overview of Mendelian Disorders

This resource provides an overview of Mendelian disorders, genetic conditions that follow the laws of inheritance first described by Gregor Mendel. It explains the different types of these disorders, their genetic basis, clinical manifestations, and potential treatment options.

Neoplasia Study Guide

This study guide provides an in-depth look at neoplasia, the process that results in the formation of tumors. It covers the pathophysiology of neoplasia, the different types of neoplastic diseases, and their potential impact on patient health.

Outcome and Morphological Pattern Analysis

This resource provides an in-depth analysis of the outcomes and morphological patterns seen in various diseases. It explores how disease processes impact the structure and function of tissues and organs, and how these changes can influence disease outcomes.

Comprehensive Study on Transplantation

This resource provides a comprehensive look at transplantation, the process of transferring cells, tissues, or organs from one site to another. It discusses the different types of transplantation, potential complications, and the immunological challenges involved in this medical procedure.


With a robust collection of lectures, discussions, and revision resources, this guide can be an invaluable tool for mastering the concepts in immunology, genetics, hemodynamics, cell injury, inflammation, and more. Whether you’re a novice in the field or looking to strengthen your knowledge, the depth and breadth of these resources can help you achieve your academic goals.

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