Pharmacology Slides : Past Paper

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Contents

Introduction:

The expansive world of pharmacology is teeming with a variety of drugs and treatments, each designed to address specific medical conditions and improve patient health. This brief guide of Pharmacology Slides provides an overview of 73 pharmacological terms and areas, offering a snapshot of their significance. Each term covers diverse classes of drugs, their function, and their role in managing health conditions.

Absorption Pharmacology Slides

Absorption refers to the process by which drugs are transferred from their site of administration to the bloodstream. The rate and extent of absorption significantly influence how quickly and how well a drug will work. Various factors, such as the drug formulation, the route of administration, and the physiology of the patient, can impact drug absorption.

ADRENAL CORTICOSTEROIDS

Adrenal Corticosteroids are hormones produced by the adrenal glands. They play a critical role in a variety of functions, such as regulating inflammatory responses, immune functions, and stress response. In medicine, they are used to treat conditions like autoimmune diseases, allergies, and adrenal insufficiency.

Adverse drug reaction _ idiosyncrasy

Adverse drug reaction refers to any unexpected or dangerous reaction to a drug. It is an undesired effect occurring at normal dosage used in humans for prophylaxis, diagnosis, or therapy of disease, or for modification of physiological function. An idiosyncratic reaction is an unpredictable reaction that does not occur in most people and doesn’t result from the known pharmacological action of the drug. It often involves a complex interaction between the patient’s genetics and the drug.

Alpha Blockers Pharmacology Slides

Alpha blockers, also known as alpha-adrenergic antagonists, are a class of medications that are used to treat a variety of conditions, such as hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. They work by blocking alpha-adrenergic receptors, preventing the hormone norepinephrine from tightening the muscles in the walls of smaller arteries and veins, which causes the vessels to remain open and relaxed, improving blood flow and decreasing blood pressure.

Aminoglycosides

Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are primarily used to combat bacterial infections. They work by binding to the bacterial 30S ribosomal subunit, leading to misreading of mRNA and inhibition of translocation, thus causing bacterial death. Examples include gentamicin, streptomycin, and neomycin. However, they have serious potential side effects including ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

Androgen _Anabolic Steroids Pharmacology Slides

Androgens are a group of hormones that play a role in male traits and reproductive activity. Anabolic steroids, which are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, have both androgenic (masculinizing) and anabolic (tissue-building) effects. They are sometimes used medically to treat conditions such as delayed puberty and muscle loss due to disease, but are more commonly associated with performance enhancement and substance abuse.

Anesthesia Pharmacokinetics

This likely refers to the study of how anesthetic drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by the body. Understanding the pharmacokinetics of these drugs is essential for anesthesiologists to provide safe and effective pain management during surgeries.

ANS including Intro, Cholinomimetics_M.Gravis

This appears to reference the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which controls involuntary bodily functions, and an introduction to cholinomimetic drugs, which mimic the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter in the ANS. Myasthenia Gravis is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder that’s often treated with cholinomimetic drugs.

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Anti Cancer Drugs

Anti-cancer drugs, also known as anticancer or chemotherapeutic agents, are used to treat malignancies, or cancerous growths. They work in several ways, such as killing rapidly dividing cells, inhibiting cell division, and preventing the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow.

Anti diarrheals

Anti-diarrheal medications are used to treat sudden or long-term diarrhea. They work by either slowing down the movement of the gut, reducing the frequency and urgency of bowel movements, or by absorbing excess water in the bowel to solidify stool.

Anti Malarial Drugs Pharmacology Slides

Antimalarial drugs are designed to prevent or cure malaria, a disease caused by parasites transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes. These medications work in different ways to kill the parasite, including by interfering with its life cycle in the human host or by poisoning the parasite.

Anti Mycobacterial Drugs

Anti-mycobacterial drugs are used to treat infections caused by Mycobacteria, such as tuberculosis and leprosy. They work by inhibiting the synthesis of essential components of the mycobacterial cell wall, inhibiting necessary enzymes, or disrupting protein synthesis.

Anti Platelets _ Anti Fibrins

Antiplatelet and antifibrin drugs are used to prevent blood clot formation in arteries. Antiplatelets work by inhibiting platelet aggregation, a key step in clot formation, while antifibrin drugs (or fibrinolytics) work by breaking down clots that have already formed.

Anti-Amoebic Drugs

Anti-amoebic drugs are used to treat infections caused by amoebas, such as amoebic dysentery. They work by either killing the amoeba directly or by stopping its growth, typically by interfering with its metabolism or damaging its DNA.

Antihistamine

Antihistamines are drugs that treat allergic conditions. They work by blocking the action of histamine, a substance in the body that causes allergic symptoms. When histamine binds to its receptors on cells, it causes changes that lead to allergic symptoms. Antihistamines prevent this by blocking the receptors histamine binds to.

Antihypertensive Agents Pharmacology Slides

Antihypertensive agents are drugs that are used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). These drugs work in a variety of ways to lower blood pressure, such as by relaxing blood vessels, decreasing blood volume, or reducing heart rate.

Antihypertensive Agents-Dr. Zahid

This likely refers to a lecture, presentation, or study by Dr. Zahid on antihypertensive agents. These drugs are used to lower high blood pressure. The exact content might depend on the specific focus or expertise of Dr. Zahid.

Antiviral Drugs

Antiviral drugs are a type of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. They work by inhibiting the development of the virus, thereby reducing the severity and duration of viral infections.

Antiviral Drugs 2

This likely refers to a follow-up or continuation of a study, lecture, or presentation on antiviral drugs. The content could potentially cover newer antiviral drugs or different aspects of antiviral drug function and application.

Autocoids

Autocoids, also known as local hormones, are substances that have hormone-like activity, acting near the site where they are synthesized. They are involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes such as allergic reactions, inflammation, vasodilation, and bronchoconstriction.

Beta Blockers Pharmacology Slides

Beta blockers, or beta-adrenergic blocking agents, are a class of drugs used primarily to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention). They work by blocking the effects of the hormone epinephrine, also known as adrenaline.

Bronchial Asthma

Bronchial asthma is a medical condition where a person’s airways become inflamed, narrow and swell, and produce extra mucus, making breathing difficult.

Cardiac Dysrhythmias

Cardiac dysrhythmias, also known as cardiac arrhythmias, are abnormalities in the heart rate or rhythm. It could be too fast, too slow, or irregular. This term likely refers to a study or a discussion of the different types of cardiac dysrhythmias and their management.

CCF UPDATED.ppt Pharmacology Slides

CCF could be an abbreviation for Congestive Cardiac Failure, also known as congestive heart failure (CHF). This condition occurs when the heart doesn’t pump blood as well as it should. The term UPDATED.ppt suggests this is an updated PowerPoint presentation on the topic.

Chloramphenicol

Chloramphenicol is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections. This includes meningitis, plague, cholera, and typhoid fever. It is considered a last-resort treatment, used only when other antibiotics are not suitable.

Cholinergic System Pharmacology Slides

The cholinergic system is a part of the nervous system that uses acetylcholine as its main neurotransmitter. This system is involved in many functions, including muscle movement, breathing, heart rate, learning, and memory.

Constipation SCM

This likely refers to a study or document on constipation, a condition characterized by difficulty or infrequent bowel movements. SCM may refer to a specific methodology, an author, or a context related to this topic.

Distribution of Drugs

This term refers to the process by which a drug is transported and spread throughout the body after it has been absorbed into the bloodstream. Distribution can be influenced by several factors, including blood flow, protein binding, and the permeability of body tissues.

Diuretics

Diuretics are drugs that help promote diuresis – the increased production of urine. They are often used to treat conditions like high blood pressure, heart failure, and some kinds of kidney disease. By removing excess fluid from the body, they can help reduce the strain on the heart and lower blood pressure.

DMARDs Pharmacology Slides

DMARDs stands for Disease-Modifying Antirheumatic Drugs. These are a category of drugs used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. They work by reducing inflammation and pain, improving physical function, and slowing disease progression.

Dose response curves ANMC

This likely refers to a study or lecture on dose-response curves, which are graphical representations of the relationship between drug concentration and the effect of the drug on the body.

Drug Plasma Half Life

Drug plasma half-life refers to the time it takes for the concentration of the drug in the bloodstream to reduce by half. This is an important pharmacokinetic parameter that influences the dosing regimen of a drug and how often it needs to be administered to maintain therapeutic levels.

Drugs and Sources Pharma Lec 2

This likely refers to a second lecture or discussion (Lec 2) in a pharmacology course, focusing on the sources of various drugs. It might cover topics such as natural vs synthetic sources, biotechnology-derived drugs, and more.

Emetics _ Antiemetics Pharmacology Slides

Emetics are medications that induce vomiting, typically used in cases of poisoning or overdose. Antiemetics, on the other hand, are drugs that prevent or reduce nausea and vomiting, often used in chemotherapy and post-surgery treatments.

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Emetics _ antiemetics.pptx

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder marked by recurrent, unprovoked seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous system and affects people of all ages, races, and ethnic backgrounds. It’s likely a study or discussion about epilepsy, its causes, symptoms, and treatment options.

Excretion Clearance of Drugs

Excretion clearance of drugs refers to the process of removing a drug or its metabolites from the body, typically through the kidneys and into urine. This process is essential to avoid the buildup of drugs and their potential toxic effects.

Excretion _ Clearance of Drugs.pptx

Female Sex Hormones

Female sex hormones include primarily estrogen and progesterone. These hormones are key in the development and function of female reproductive organs, such as the breasts, ovaries, and uterus. They also play crucial roles in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy.

Androgen _ Anabolic Steroids Pharmacology Slides

As mentioned earlier, anabolic steroids are synthetic substances similar to male sex hormones, and they have both androgenic (masculinizing) and anabolic (tissue-building) effects.

Gen Anesthesia ANMC

This likely refers to general anesthesia, a medically induced state of unconsciousness with loss of protective reflexes. It is usually used during surgeries to prevent pain and discomfort. ANMC could refer to a particular medical institution or context.

Gout

Gout is a common form of arthritis that causes intense pain, swelling, and stiffness in a joint, usually a big toe. It happens when uric acid builds up and causes inflammation in your joints. This might refer to a discussion or study about gout, its causes, symptoms, and treatment options.

Heparin (Parentral Anti coagulant)

Heparin is a parenteral anticoagulant, a medication that prevents blood clotting and is administered through injection or infusion. It is often used in the treatment and prevention of conditions like deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.

Hyperlipidemia Pharmacology Slides

Hyperlipidemia is a medical term for abnormally high levels of fats (lipids) in the blood. These lipids include cholesterol and triglycerides, which can increase the risk of heart disease if not controlled. This term might refer to a discussion or study about hyperlipidemia, its causes, complications, and management.

Immunosuppressants

Immunosuppressants are drugs that reduce the body’s immune response. They are often used to prevent the body from rejecting a transplanted organ, and to treat autoimmune diseases or other conditions that are caused by an overactive immune system.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a term for two conditions (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis) that are characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This term likely refers to a discussion or study about IBD, its symptoms, causes, complications, and treatment options.

Introduction to Antimicrobial

This is likely an introductory text, lecture, or course about antimicrobial medications, which are drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It would typically cover the basics about various classes of antimicrobials, their mechanisms of action, and applications.

MACROLIDES new

This probably refers to a document, lecture, or course update about macrolides, a class of antibiotics derived from Streptomyces bacteria. They inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria, leading to their death and are often used in treating respiratory tract and soft-tissue infections.

New Anti Peptic Ulcer Drugs Dec2020 Pharmacology Slides

This likely refers to a document or study about new anti-peptic ulcer drugs as of December 2020. Peptic ulcers are sores that develop on the lining of the stomach, upper small intestine, or esophagus, and anti-peptic ulcer drugs are used to treat these conditions.

New BIOTRANSFORMATIOM completed

This possibly refers to a completed study or discussion about new findings in biotransformation, the process by which a substance changes from one chemical to another (transformed) by a chemical reaction within the body.

NSAIDS

NSAIDs stands for Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs. They are a class of drugs that provides analgesic (pain-killing) and antipyretic (fever-reducing) effects, and, in higher doses, anti-inflammatory effects.

OPIOIDS

Opioids are a class of drugs that include the illegal drug heroin, synthetic opioids such as fentanyl, and pain relievers available legally by prescription. They are used for pain relief but can be highly addictive and are often misused.

Oral Contraceptives PDF-Copy

This likely refers to a PDF copy of a document or study about oral contraceptives. Oral contraceptives, also known as birth control pills, are medications taken by mouth to prevent pregnancy.

Oral or Indirectly Acting Anticoagulants

Oral or indirectly acting anticoagulants are a type of anticoagulant medication taken by mouth. They work by prolonging the time it takes for blood to clot, and are used in a variety of conditions where there’s a high risk of blood clots.

Parasympatholytic Anticholinergics

Parasympatholytic anticholinergics are a class of drugs that reduce the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system by blocking the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They are used for a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory diseases, and certain types of poisoning.

Parkinsonism Pharmacology Slides

Parkinsonism refers to a group of neurological disorders that cause movement problems similar to those seen in Parkinson’s disease, such as tremors, slow movement, and stiffness. This term likely refers to a discussion or study about these conditions, their causes, symptoms, and treatment options.

Penicillins B-lactam drug J

This term most likely refers to a study or document about penicillins, a group of antibiotics included in the class of drugs known as beta-lactam drugs. These drugs work by inhibiting the formation of peptidoglycan cross-links in the bacterial cell wall, making them effective at combatting bacterial infections.

Pharmacodynamics

Pharmacodynamics refers to the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs on the body or on microorganisms or parasites within or on the body and the mechanisms of drug action and the relationship between drug concentration and effect.

Pharmacodynamics Pharma Lec 4+5

This likely refers to the fourth and fifth lectures (Lec 4+5) in a pharmacology course, focusing on pharmacodynamics, the study of how drugs affect the body. It may cover concepts like dose-response relationships, drug-receptor interactions, and more.

Pharmacology of Bleeding

This term likely refers to a study of how various drugs influence bleeding. This could include anticoagulants (which slow down clotting), antiplatelet drugs (which prevent platelets from clumping together), and thrombolytics (which dissolve existing clots).

Plasma Half Life Pharmacology Slides

Plasma half-life refers to the time required for the concentration of the drug in the bloodstream to be reduced by half. Understanding the half-life of a drug helps in determining its dosing schedule and frequency.

Quinolones

Quinolones are a type of antibiotic, commonly used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. They work by inhibiting bacterial DNA gyrase or topoisomerase, thus preventing bacterial DNA replication.

Routes of Administration of Drugs Pharma

This likely refers to a pharmacology lecture or document on the routes of drug administration. This topic covers how drugs can be administered in various ways, including orally, intravenously, intramuscularly, subcutaneously, etc., and how the route of administration can affect the drug’s absorption and effectiveness.

Sedatives Hypnotics Lecture 1

This is probably the first lecture in a series on sedatives and hypnotics. Sedatives are drugs that calm or soothe patients, reducing excitement and irritability. Hypnotics are a class of drugs that induce and maintain sleep.

Skeletal Muscle Relaxants

Skeletal muscle relaxants are drugs that specifically target skeletal muscle function and reduce muscle tone. They are typically used to alleviate symptoms such as muscle spasms, pain, and hyperreflexia.

SULFONAMIDES

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibiotics that contain the sulfonamide group. They were among the first systemic antibacterial medications and are used to treat bacterial infections.

Sympathomimetics

Sympathomimetics are a class of drugs that mimic the effects of substances released by the sympathetic nervous system. They are often used to treat conditions like asthma, heart failure, and low blood pressure.

Terms Definitions Pharma lec 1

This likely refers to the first lecture in a pharmacology course, providing definitions of key terms used in the field of pharmacology. It is a crucial foundational component for understanding more complex pharmacological concepts and principles.

THYROID ANTITHYROID DRUGS

This drugs are medications used to treat thyroid diseases. Thyroid drugs are usually hormones used to treat hypothyroidism, while antithyroid drugs are used to reduce the production of thyroid hormones in hyperthyroidism.

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THYROID _ ANTITHYROID DRUGS.pptx

Tetracyclines

Tetracyclines are a group of broad-spectrum antibiotics that interfere with bacterial protein synthesis. They are used in the treatment of numerous bacterial infections, as well as in the treatment of acne.

Tolerance DRUG DEPENDENCE Pharmacology Slides

It refer to the body’s adaptation to repeated exposure to a drug. Tolerance is when the body requires higher doses of the drug to achieve the same effect, while dependence is when the body has adapted to the drug to the point where it’s needed to function normally.

Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus New

This likely refers to a recent or updated document on the treatment of diabetes mellitus, a chronic disease characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood. It may include new treatment methods, medicines, or guidelines for managing the disease.

Conclusion: Pharmacology Slides

Understanding the basics of these pharmacological terms is essential in the field of healthcare, facilitating better decision-making and patient care. These succinct descriptions offer a glimpse into the complex world of pharmacology, each term holding a vast amount of deeper research and knowledge to explore.

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